, ʻO China seamless alloy steel pipe ASTM A335 maʻamau kiʻekiʻe puʻupuʻu boiler paipu Manufacturer a mea hoʻolako |Sanon gula

paipu kila kila maʻamau ASTM A335 maʻamau kiʻekiʻe puʻe paila paipu

ʻO ka wehewehe pōkole:

ASTM A335maʻamau kiʻekiʻe Maha wela paila paipu seamless alloy paipu me IBR certifiaction

ʻO ka paipu huila ʻole no ka paila, ka mea hoʻololi wela a me nā ʻoihana

 


  • Uku:30% waiho, 70% L/C a i ʻole B/L kope a i ʻole 100% L/C ma ka ʻike
  • Ka nui o ke kauoha:1 PC
  • Hiki ke hoolako:20000 Tons Inventory of Steel Pipe
  • Ka manawa o waena o ka hoʻomaka a i ka wā pau:7-14 mau lā inā ma ka waihona, 30-45 mau lā e hana ai
  • Hoʻopili:Nalo ʻeleʻele, bevel a me ka pāpale no kēlā me kēia paipu;Pono ka OD ma lalo o 219mm e hoʻopaʻa i ka pūʻolo, a ʻaʻole i ʻoi aku ka nui o kēlā me kēia puʻupuʻu i 2 tons.
  • Huahana Huahana

    P5

    P9

    P11

    P22

    P92

    Huahana Huahana

    Nānā nui

    Kūlana:ASTM A335 Alloy a ʻAʻole: Alloy
    Pūʻulu Papa: P5,P9,P11,P22,P91, P92 Etc. Noi: Paipu Boiler
    Mānoanoa: 1 - 100 Mm Ili lapaau: E like me ka Customer koi
    Ka Anawaena Mawaho (Ka puni): 10 - 1000 Mm ʻenehana: Huki ʻia ʻo Wela/ Huki Anu
    Ka lōʻihi: ka lōʻihi paʻa a i ʻole ka lōʻihi like ʻole Hoʻomaʻamaʻa wela: Annealing / Normalizing / Tempering
    ʻAno ʻāpana: Poe Paipu Kūikawā: Paipu Pā mānoanoa
    Kahi i kumu: Kina Hoʻohana: High Pressure Steam Pipe, Boiler and Heat Exchanger
    Palapala hōʻoia: ISO9001:2008 Hoʻāʻo: ET/UT

    Palapala noi

    Hoʻohana nui ʻia ia e hana i ke kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe alloy steel boiler paipu, wela hoʻololi paipu, kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe puʻe mahu paipu no ka aila a me ka ʻoihana kemika.

    1 锅炉管
    2 化工化肥管
    产品-6
    4 Hana ʻia

    Papa Nui

    Papa o ka paipu huila kiʻekiʻe: P5,P9,P11,P22,P91,P92 etc

     

    ASTM A335 P9
    P11伟浩(1)
    P22
    P91 406
    P92 720
    P91 508

    Mea Kimia

    Papa UN C≤ Mn P≤ S≤ Si≤ Cr Mo
    Sequiv.
    P1 K11522 0.10~0.20 0.30~0.80 0.025 0.025 0.10~0.50 0.44~0.65
    P2 K11547 0.10~0.20 0.30~0.61 0.025 0.025 0.10-0.30 0.50~0.81 0.44~0.65
    P5 K41545 0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.5 4.00-6.00 0.44~0.65
    P5b K51545 0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 1.00-2.00 4.00-6.00 0.44~0.65
    P5c K41245 0.12 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.5 4.00-6.00 0.44~0.65
    P9 S50400 0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.50-1.00 8.00-10.00 0.44~0.65
    P11 K11597 0.05~0.15 0.30~0.61 0.025 0.025 0.50-1.00 1.00-1.50 0.44~0.65
    P12 K11562 0.05~0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.5 0.80~1.25 0.44~0.65
    P15 K11578 0.05~0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 1.15~1.65 0.44~0.65
    P21 K31545 0.05~0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.5 2.65~3.35 0.80~1.60
    P22 K21590 0.05~0.15 0.30~0.60 0.025 0.025 0.5 1.90~2.60 0.87~1.13
    P91 K91560 0.08~0.12 0.30~0.60 0.02 0.01 0.20~0.50 8.00-9.50 0.85-1.05
    P92 K92460 0.07~0.13 0.30~0.60 0.02 0.01 0.5 8.50-9.50 0.30~0.60

    He inoa hou i hoʻokumu ʻia e like me ka Practice E 527 a me SAE J1086, Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS).Loaʻa i ka papa B 5c ka maʻiʻo titanium ʻaʻole i emi iho ma mua o 4 manawa o ka maʻiʻo kalapona a ʻaʻole i oi aku ma mua o 0.70 %;a i ʻole he maʻiʻo columbium o 8 a 10 manawa o ka maʻiʻo kalapona.

    Waiwai Mechanical

    Nā waiwai mīkini P1,P2 P12 P23 P91 P92,P11 P122
    Ka ikaika tensile 380 415 510 585 620 620
    Hua ikaika 205 220 400 415 440 400

    Hoʻomaʻamaʻa Wela

    Papa ʻAno Hana Wela Hoʻomaʻamaʻa maʻamau ʻo F [C] Subcritical Annealing or Tempering
    P5, P9, P11, a me P22 Kaulana Mahana F [C]
    A335 P5 (b,c) Hoʻopiha piha a i ʻole Isothermal Anneal    
      Normalize a me ka Mahana ***** 1250 [675]
      Hoʻohui Kūʻē (P5c wale nō) ***** 1325 – 1375 [715 - 745]
    A335 P9 Hoʻopiha piha a i ʻole Isothermal Anneal    
      Normalize a me ka Mahana ***** 1250 [675]
    A335 P11 Hoʻopiha piha a i ʻole Isothermal Anneal    
      Normalize a me ka Mahana ***** 1200 [650]
    A335 P22 Hoʻopiha piha a i ʻole Isothermal Anneal    
      Normalize a me ka Mahana ***** 1250 [675]
    A335 P91 Normalize a me ka Mahana 1900-1975 [1040 - 1080] 1350-1470 [730 - 800]
      Hoʻopiʻi me ka huhū 1900-1975 [1040 - 1080] 1350-1470 [730 - 800]

    Hoʻomanawanui

    No ka paipu i kauoha ʻia i ke anawaena o loko, ʻaʻole e ʻokoʻa ke anawaena o loko ma mua o 6 1% mai ke anawaena o loko i ʻōlelo ʻia.

    ʻAe ʻia nā ʻokoʻa ma waho o ke anawaena

    NPS mea koho in mm in mm
    1⁄8a 11⁄2, me 1⁄64 (0.015) 0.4 1⁄64(0.015) 0.4
    Ma luna o 11⁄2 a hiki i 4, incl. 1⁄32(0.031) 0.79 1⁄32(0.031) 0.79
    Ma luna o 4 a hiki i 8, incl 1⁄16(0.062) 1.59 1⁄32(0.031) 0.79
    Ma luna o 8 a 12, incl. 3⁄32(0.093) 2.38 1⁄32(0.031) 0.79
    Ma luna o 12 6 1 % o ka mea i hoakakaia
    waho
    anawaena
         

    Koi hoao

    Hōʻike Hydraustatic:

    Pono e ho'āʻoʻia ka paipu kila me ka hydraulic hoʻokahi.ʻO 20 MPa ka piʻi kiʻekiʻe loa.Ma lalo o ke kaomi ho'āʻo, ʻaʻole i emi iho ka manawa hoʻokūpaʻa ma mua o 10 S, a ʻaʻole pono e kahe ka paipu kila.

    Ma hope o ka ʻae ʻana o ka mea hoʻohana, hiki ke hoʻololi ʻia ka Hydraulic Test e ka Eddy Current Testing or Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing.

    Ho'āʻo Nondestructive:

    ʻO nā paipu e koi ana i ka nānā hou aʻe e pono ke nānā ʻia me ka Ultrasonically.Ma hope o ke kūkākūkā ʻana e koi ʻia ka ʻae ʻana o ka ʻaoʻao a ua kuhikuhi ʻia i loko o ka ʻaelike, hiki ke hoʻohui ʻia nā hoʻāʻo hoʻopōʻino ʻole.

    Ho'āʻo palahalaha:

    ʻO nā paipu me ka anawaena waho i ʻoi aku ma mua o 22 mm e hoʻāʻo ʻia i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana.ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia ka Delamination, nā kiko keʻokeʻo, a i ʻole nā ​​​​mea haumia i ka wā o ka hoʻokolohua holoʻokoʻa.

    Ho'āʻo paʻakikī:

    No ka paipu o nā Papa P91, P92, P122, a me P911, Brinell, Vickers, a i ʻole Rockwell e hana ʻia nā hoʻāʻo paʻakikī ma kahi hōʻailona mai kēlā me kēia ʻāpana.

    Hoʻāʻo Bend:

    No ka paipu nona ke anawaena i oi aku i ka NPS 25 a o kona anawaena me ka manoanoa o ka paia he 7.0 a emi mai paha e hoao ia i ka hoao piko ma kahi o ka hoao palahalaha.Hiki ke hā'awi 'ia ka paipu 'ē a'e i like a 'oi aku paha ma mua o NPS 10 i ka ho'ā'o pi'o ma kahi o ka ho'ā'o palahalaha ma muli o ka 'ae o ka mea kū'ai.

     

    Waihona

    库存1
    库存2

    Huahana Huahana

    Hoouka & Hoouna

     1. Hoʻouka ʻia e ka ipu
    2. Hoʻouka ʻia e ka lawe nui ʻana

    wikiō


  • Mua:
  • Aʻe:

  • ASTM A335 P5he paipu wela kiʻekiʻe o ka maʻamau ʻAmelika.ʻO ka paipu Alloy kahi ʻano o ka paipu kila maʻemaʻe, ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o kāna hana ma mua o ka pahu kila maʻemaʻe, no ka mea, ʻoi aku ka nui o C i kēia ʻano o ka paipu kila, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka hana ma mua o ka paipu kila seamless maʻamau, no laila ua hoʻohana nui ʻia ka paipu alloy. i ka aila, aerospace, kemika, ka mana uila, ka paila, ka pūʻali koa a me nā ʻoihana ʻē aʻe.

    Loaʻa i ka paipu Alloy Steel ka nui o nā mea ʻē aʻe ma waho o ke kalapona e like me ka nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium a me nā helu liʻiliʻi o nā mea i ʻae ʻia e like me ka manganese, sulfur, silicon, a me ka phosphorous.

    E like me ke kila kila kūloko: 1Cr5Mo GB 9948-2006 "Seamless Steel Pipe Standard for Petroleum Cracking"

    • Uku: 30% Waihona, 70% L/C A i ʻole B/L kope a i ʻole 100% L/C ma ka ʻike.
    • Min.Order Nui:1 PC
    • Hiki ke hoʻolako: Makahiki 20000 Tons Inventory Of Steel Pipe
    • Ke alakaʻi manawa: 7-14 mau lā inā i loko o ka waihona, 30-45 mau lā e hana ai
    • Hoʻopili: Nalo ʻeleʻele, Bevel a me ka pāpale no kēlā me kēia paipu hoʻokahi;OD Ma lalo o 219mm Pono e hoʻopaʻa i loko o ka pūʻolo, a ʻo kēlā me kēia pūpū ʻaʻole i ʻoi aku ma mua o 2 mau tona.

    Nānā nui

    Kūlana:ASTM A335 Alloy a ʻAʻole: Alloy
    Pūʻulu Papa: P5 Noi: Paipu Boiler
    Mānoanoa: 1 – 100 Mm Ili lapaau: E like me ka Customer koi
    Ka Anawaena o waho (Ka puni): 10 – 1000 Mm ʻenehana: Huki ʻia ʻo Wela/ Huki Anu
    Ka lōʻihi: ka lōʻihi paʻa a i ʻole ka lōʻihi like ʻole Hoʻomaʻamaʻa wela: Annealing / Normalizing / Tempering
    ʻAno ʻāpana: Poe Paipu Kūikawā: Paipu Pā mānoanoa
    Kahi i kumu: Kina Hoʻohana: High Pressure Steam Pipe, Boiler and Heat Exchanger
    Palapala hōʻoia: ISO9001:2008 Hoʻāʻo: ET/UT

    Palapala noi

    Hoʻohana nui ʻia no ka hana ʻana i ke kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe Alloy Steel Boiler Pipe, Heat Exchanged Pipe, High Pressure Steam Pipe No ka ʻaila a me ka ʻoihana ʻoihana.

    Mea Kimia

    Nā haku mele

    ʻIkepili

    UNS Hoʻokohu K41545
    Kalapona(max.) 0.15
    Manganese 0.30-0.60
    Phosphorus(max.) 0.025
    Silika(max.) 0.50
    Chromium 4.00-6.00
    Molybdenum 0.45-0.65
    Nā mea ʻē aʻe
    Hoʻokumu ʻia kahi inoa hou e like me ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa E 527 a me SAE J1086, hoʻomaʻamaʻa no ka helu ʻana i nā metala a me nā huila (UNS).Loaʻa iā B Papa P 5c ka maʻiʻo Titanium ʻaʻole i emi iho ma mua o 4 manawa o ka maʻiʻo kalapona a ʻaʻole i ʻoi aku ma mua o 0.70%;A i ʻole kahi maʻiʻo Columbium o 8 a 10 mau manawa o ka ʻike kalapona.

    Waiwai Mechanical

    Waiwai ʻIkepili
    Ikaika U'i, Min, (MPa) 415 Mpa
    Ka ikaika hua, min, (MPa) 205 Mpa
    Elongation, Min, (%), L/T 30/20

    Hoʻomaʻamaʻa Wela

    Papa ʻAno Hana Wela Hoʻomaʻamaʻa maʻamau ʻo F [C] Subcritical Annealing A i ʻole Tempering
    P5, P9, P11, a me P22 Kaulana Mahana F [C]
    A335 P5 (B,C) Piha A i ʻole Isothermal Anneal    
    A335 P5b Hoʻomaʻamaʻa a me ka huhū ***** 1250 [675]
    A335 P5c ʻO Anneal Subcritical ***** 1325 – 1375 [715 - 745]

    Hoʻomanawanui

    No ka paipu i kauoha ʻia i loko o ke anawaena, ʻaʻole e ʻokoʻa ke anawaena o loko ma mua o ±1 % mai ka anawaena o loko i ʻōlelo ʻia.

    ʻAe ʻia nā ʻokoʻa ma waho o ke anawaena

    NPS mea koho Hoʻomanawanui maikaʻi hoʻomanawanui ʻino
    In Mm In Mm
    1⁄8 a hiki i 11⁄2, Incl 1⁄64 (0.015) 0.4 1⁄64(0.015) 0.4
    Ma luna o 11⁄2 i 4, Incl. 1⁄32(0.031) 0.79 1⁄32(0.031) 0.79
    Ma luna o 4 a 8, Incl 1⁄16(0.062) 1.59 1⁄32(0.031) 0.79
    Ma luna o 8 a hiki i ka 12, Incl. 3⁄32(0.093) 2.38 1⁄32(0.031) 0.79
    Ma luna o 12 ±1 % o ka mea i hoakakaia
    Mawaho
    Anawaena

    Koi hoao

    Hōʻike Hydraustatic:

    Pono e ho'āʻoʻia ka paipu kila me ka hydraulic hoʻokahi.ʻO 20 MPa ka piʻi kiʻekiʻe loa.Ma lalo o ke kaomi ho'āʻo, ʻaʻole i emi iho ka manawa hoʻokūpaʻa ma mua o 10 S, a ʻaʻole pono e kahe ka paipu kila.

    Ma hope o ka ʻae ʻana o ka mea hoʻohana, hiki ke hoʻololi ʻia ka Hydraulic Test e ka Eddy Current Testing or Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing.

    Ho'āʻo Nondestructive:

    ʻO nā paipu e koi ana i ka nānā hou aʻe e pono ke nānā ʻia me ka Ultrasonically.Ma hope o ke kūkākūkā ʻana e koi ʻia ka ʻae ʻana o ka ʻaoʻao a ua kuhikuhi ʻia i loko o ka ʻaelike, hiki ke hoʻohui ʻia nā hoʻāʻo hoʻopōʻino ʻole.

    Ho'āʻo palahalaha:

    ʻO nā paipu me ka anawaena waho i ʻoi aku ma mua o 22 mm e hoʻāʻo ʻia i ka hoʻāʻo ʻana.ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia ka Delamination, nā kiko keʻokeʻo, a i ʻole nā ​​​​mea haumia i ka wā o ka hoʻokolohua holoʻokoʻa.

    Ho'āʻo paʻakikī:

    No ka paipu o nā papa P91, P92, P122, a me P911, Brinell, Vickers, a i ʻole Rockwell, e hana ʻia nā hoʻāʻo paʻakikī ma luna o kahi kikoʻī mai kēlā me kēia ʻāpana.

    Hoʻāʻo Bend:

    No ka paipu nona ka anawaena i oi aku i ka NPS 25 a nona ka anawaena o ka manoanoa o ka paia he 7.0 a emi mai paha e hoao ia i ka hoao Bend ma kahi o ka hoao flattening.ʻO nā paipu ʻē aʻe nona ka anawaena like a ʻoi aku paha ma mua o NPS 10 hiki ke hāʻawi ʻia i ka hoʻāʻo Bend ma kahi o ka hoʻāʻo flattening ma lalo o ka ʻae ʻana o ka mea kūʻai.

    Mea & Hana

    Hiki ke wela a huki ʻia paha ka paipu me ka hoʻoponopono wela i hōʻike ʻia ma lalo nei.

    Hoʻomaʻamaʻa Wela
    • A / N+T
    • N+T / Q+T
    • N+T
    Hōʻike ʻia nā hoʻokolohua Mechanical
    • ʻO ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka ʻāʻī a i ʻole ka Longitudinal Tension Test and Flattening Test, Hardness Test, a i ʻole Bend Test
    • No nā mea wela i mālama ʻia i loko o ka umu ahi ʻano pū, e hoʻāʻo ʻia ma ka 5% o ka paipu mai kēlā me kēia ʻāpana i mālama ʻia.No nā ʻāpana liʻiliʻi, e hoʻāʻo ʻia ma kahi o hoʻokahi paipu.
    • No ka wela wela i mālama ʻia e ke kaʻina hana mau, e hana ʻia nā hoʻāʻo ma ka helu kūpono o ka paipu e lilo i 5% o ka hailona, ​​akā ʻaʻole i emi iho ma mua o 2 paipu.
    Nā memo no ka ho'āʻo ʻo Bend:
    • No ka paipu nona ka anawaena i oi aku i ka NPS 25 a o kona anawaena me ka manoanoa o ka paia he 7.0 a emi mai paha e hoao ia i ka hoao piko ma kahi o ka hoao palahalaha.
    • Hiki ke hā'awi 'ia ka paipu 'ē a'e i like ke anawaena a 'oi aku paha ma mua o NPS 10 ma kahi o ka ho'ā'o palahalaha ma muli o ka 'ae o ka mea kū'ai.
    • E hoʻopiʻi ʻia nā mea hoʻāʻo piʻo ma ka lumi wela a hiki i 180 me ka ʻole o ka haki ʻana ma waho o ka ʻāpana piʻo.

    ASTM A335 P5He kūpono nā paipu kila ʻole no ka wai, ka mahu, ka hydrogen, ka ʻaila ʻawaʻawa, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe.;Ke hoʻohana ʻia i ka ʻoihana hana e like me ka aila ʻawaʻawa, maikaʻi ke kūpaʻa sulfur corrosion kiʻekiʻe, a hoʻohana pinepine ʻia i nā kūlana corrosion sulfur kiʻekiʻe o 288 ~ 550.

    Kaʻina hana:

    1. 'Owili wela (extruded seamless paipu kila): poepoe paipu billet → wela → perforation → ekolu-roll kea olokaa, hoomau olokaa 'ole extrusion → paipu wehe 'ana → nui (ai 'ole e ho'ēmi) → hoʻoluʻu → hoʻopololei → wai kaomi ho'āʻo (aiʻole defect detection). ) → māka → waiho

    2. Kiʻi anu (ʻolokaʻa) paipu kila maʻemaʻe: puʻupuʻu pōʻai billet → hoʻomehana → perforation → poʻomanaʻo → annealing → pickling → ʻaila ʻaila (kaupaʻa keleawe) → kiʻi anuanu (cold rolling) → paipu blank → mālama wela → hoʻopololei → wai ho'āʻo kaomi (ʻike hewa) → māka → waiho

    Nā hiʻohiʻona noiʻi:

    I loko o ka lewa a me ka ʻenekini no ka hana ʻana i ka aila ʻaila kiʻekiʻe-sulfur,ASTM A335 P5Hoʻohana nui ʻia nā paipu kila ʻole no nā paipu lalo o nā hale kiaʻi a me nā hale kiaʻi, nā umu ahi o ka lewa a me nā kapuahi, nā ʻāpana kiʻekiʻe o ka lewa a me ka ʻaila hoʻololi ʻana i nā laina a me nā ʻaila kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe a me nā paipu kinoea i loaʻa i ka sulfur.

                1 锅炉管2 化工化肥管

    Ma nā ʻāpana FCC,ASTM A335 P5Hoʻohana nui ʻia nā paipu kila maʻemaʻe i ka slurry kiʻekiʻe, catalyst a me ka hoʻihoʻi ʻana i nā pipelines hoʻomaʻemaʻe, a me kekahi mau pipelines sulfur kiʻekiʻe.

    v2-0c41f593f019cd1ba7925cc1c0187f06_1440w(1)

    I ka hui coking lohi,ASTM A335 P5Hoʻohana nui ʻia ka paipu kila maʻemaʻe no ke kiʻekiʻe o ka wela wela ma lalo o ka hale kiaʻi coke a me ke kiʻekiʻe wela o ka aila a me ka paipu kinoea ma luna o ka hale kiaʻi coke, ka paipu umu ma lalo o ka umu coke, ka paipu ma lalo o ka hale kiaʻi fracking a me nā mea ʻē aʻe. kiʻekiʻe wela ka aila a me ke kinoea paipu i loko o ka sulfur.

     

    Loaʻa i ka paipu Alloy Steel ka nui o nā mea ʻē aʻe ma waho o ke kalapona e like me ka nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium a me nā helu liʻiliʻi o nā mea i ʻae ʻia e like me ka manganese, sulfur, silicon, a me ka phosphorous..

    ASTM A335 P9 he paipu wela kiʻekiʻe o ka maʻamau ʻAmelika. ʻO ka paipu Alloy kahi ʻano o ka paipu kila maʻemaʻe, ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o kāna hana ma mua o ka pahu kila maʻemaʻe, no ka mea, ʻoi aku ka nui o C i kēia ʻano o ka paipu kila, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka hana ma mua o ka paipu kila seamless maʻamau, no laila ua hoʻohana nui ʻia ka paipu alloy. i ka aila, aerospace, kemika, ka mana uila, ka paila, ka pūʻali koa a me nā ʻoihana ʻē aʻe.

    A335 P9he kila wela wela chromium-molybdenum i hana ʻia e like me ke kūlana ʻAmelika.Ma muli o kona kūpaʻa maikaʻi loa, ka ikaika wela a me ka sulfide corrosion resistance, hoʻohana nui ʻia ia i ke kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe a me ke kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe o ka inflammable a me nā paipu pahū o nā mea kanu hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻaila, ʻoi aku ka pololei o ka paipu wela o ka umu wela, hiki i ka mahana wela ke hiki i 550 ~ 600 ℃ .

    E like me ke kila kila kūloko: 1Cr5Mo GB 9948-2006 "Seamless Steel Pipe Standard for Petroleum Cracking"

    Nānā nui

    Kūlana:ASTM A335 Alloy a ʻAʻole: Alloy
    Pūʻulu Papa: P9 Noi: Paipu Boiler
    Mānoanoa: 1 – 100 Mm Ili lapaau: E like me ka Customer koi
    Ka Anawaena o waho (Ka puni): 10 – 1000 Mm ʻenehana: Huki ʻia ʻo Wela/ Huki Anu
    Ka lōʻihi: ka lōʻihi paʻa a i ʻole ka lōʻihi like ʻole Hoʻomaʻamaʻa wela: Annealing / Normalizing / Tempering
    ʻAno ʻāpana: Poe Pipe Pecial: Paipu Pā mānoanoa
    Kahi i kumu: Kina Hoʻohana: High Pressure Steam Pipe, Boiler and Heat Exchanger
    Palapala hōʻoia: ISO9001:2008 Hoʻāʻo: ET/UT

     

    Mea Kimia

    ʻO ka hana kemika o nā paipu kila maʻemaʻe no ka haki ʻana o ka ʻaila

    ASTM A335M

    C

    SI

    Mn

    P

    S

    Cr

    Mo

    P9

    ≦0.15

    0.25-1.00

    0.30-0.60

    ≦0.025

    ≦0.025

    8.00-10.00

    0.90-1.10

     

    Waiwai Mechanical

    Waiwai

    ʻIkepili

    Ka ikaika uʻi, min, (MPa) 415 Mpa
    Ka ikaika hua, min, (MPa) 205 Mpa
    Elongation, min, (%), L/T 14
    HB 180

    Hoʻomaʻamaʻa Wela

     

    Papa

    ʻAno Hana Wela Hoʻomaʻamaʻa maʻamau ʻo F [C] Subcritical Annealing A i ʻole Tempering
    P5, P9, P11, a me P22    
    A335 P9 Piha A i ʻole Isothermal Anneal    
      Hoʻomaʻamaʻa a me ka huhū ***** 1250 [675]

    A335 P9hiki ke mālama ʻia ka wela e ka annealing a i ʻole ka hana maʻamau + tempering.He lohi ke kaʻina hana Annealing, hoʻopilikia i ke kaʻina hana, paʻakikī ke kaʻina hana, a me ke kumukūʻai kiʻekiʻe;No laila, ʻaʻole hoʻohana ka hana maoli i ke kaʻina hana annealing wela, hoʻohana pinepine i ka normalizing + tempering heat treatment ma mua o ke kaʻina hana annealing, e hoʻokō i ka hana ʻoihana.

    A335 P9kila no ka mea, ʻaʻole i loaʻa iā V, Nb a me nā mea microalloying ʻē aʻe, no laila ʻoi aku ka haʻahaʻa o ka mahana maʻamau ma mua o A335 P91 kila, 950 ~ 1050 ℃, paʻa no 1h, ke kaʻina hana i ka wā maʻamau ka hapa nui o ka carbide i hoʻoheheʻe ʻia akā ʻaʻole i maopopo ka ulu ʻana o ka palaoa, akā. ʻO ke kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe o ka maʻamau maʻamau ua maʻalahi i ka austenite grain coarse: ʻo ka mahana wela he 740-790 ℃, i mea e loaʻa ai ka paʻakikī haʻahaʻa, pono e hoʻolōʻihi ʻia ka manawa mahana wela.

    Hoʻomanawanui

    No ka paipu i kauoha ʻia i loko o ke anawaena, ʻaʻole e ʻokoʻa ke anawaena o loko ma mua o ±1 % mai ka anawaena o loko i ʻōlelo ʻia.

    ʻAe ʻia nā ʻokoʻa ma waho o ke anawaena

    NPS mea koho

    Hoʻomanawanui maikaʻi

    hoʻomanawanui ʻino

    In

    Mm

    In

    Mm

    1⁄8 a hiki i 11⁄2, Incl

    1⁄64 (0.015)

    0.4

    1⁄64(0.015)

    0.4

    Ma luna o 11⁄2 i 4, Incl.

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 4 a 8, Incl

    1⁄16(0.062)

    1.59

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 8 a hiki i ka 12, Incl.

    3⁄32(0.093)

    2.38

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 12

    ±1 % o ka mea i hoakakaia
    Mawaho
    Anawaena

    Kaʻina hana:

    Hoʻolālā ʻia ʻo A335 e like me ke kūlana lako o ka paipu kila Tianjin a me nā ʻano oA335 P9kila P9 ho'āʻo-hana kaʻina hana o ka seamless kila paipu:Hana ʻia ka umu ahi uila → hoʻomaʻemaʻe ladle → hoʻoheheʻe ʻia → hoʻoheheʻe ʻia → hoʻoheheʻe ʻia → hoʻoheheʻe ʻia → hoʻoheheʻe ʻana i ka pahu → hoʻomehana ʻana o ka pahu → oblique piercing → PQF mau ʻo ka ʻōwili ʻana o ka pahu wili wili → ʻekolu ʻōwili nui → ka hoʻoluʻu ʻana o ka moena → ka hopena o ka paipu. ʻoki → hoʻopololei i ka paipu kila → ʻike leakage flux magnetic → hoʻomaʻamaʻa wela → hoʻopololei → ʻike hewa kani ultrasonic → hoʻāʻo hydraulic → nānā ka nui a me ka nānā ʻana → mālama.

    hana hana

    Helu mea

    hana hana

    Ka Hana a me ka Mana Pono

    1

    Halawai makaikai

    Minute o ka halawai

    2

    ASEA-SKF

    Hoʻoponopono i ka haku mele

    *Ka helu ʻana i ka haku mele

    *mahana hoohehee

    3

    CCM

    billet
    *Ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana

    4

    Nānā mea maka

    Ka nānā ʻana a me ka hōʻoia ʻana i ka maikaʻi

    * Ke kūlana hiʻohiʻona: ʻAʻole pono ka ʻili o ka billet i nā hemahema e like me ka scarring, slag, pinholes, māwae, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe.

    5

    Pumehana hakahaka

    ʻO ka hoʻomehana ʻana i nā billet i loko o ka umu ahi

    * Mālama i ka mahana wela

    6

    ka puka ʻana o ka paipu

    ʻOkuʻi me kahi kuʻi papa kuhikuhi/alakaʻi

    *E hoʻomalu i ka mahana i ka wā e hou ai

    * E hoʻomalu i ka nui ma hope o ka perforation

    7

    ʻO ka ʻōwili wela

    ʻO ka ʻōwili wela ma nā hale wili paipu mau

    * Hoʻonohonoho i ka mānoanoa pā paipu

    8

    Nui

    E hoʻomalu i ke anawaena o waho a me nā ana mānoanoa o ka paia

    * Hoʻopiha piha i ka anawaena o waho

    * ʻO ka mīkini mānoanoa pā piha

    9

    haku mele

    ʻIkepili haku mele

    * Nā ʻae ʻana no ka haku mele ʻana.Pono e hoʻopaʻa ʻia nā hopena o ka hoʻopili ʻana i ka haku mele ma ka puke mea.

    10

    Hoʻomaʻamaʻa + hoʻomaʻamaʻa

    Hana ʻia ka mālama wela (normalizing) ma hope o ka ʻōwili wela.Pono ka mālama wela e hoʻomalu i ka mahana a me ka lōʻihi.

    Ma hope o ka mālama ʻana i ka wela, pono e hoʻokō nā waiwai mechanical o ka huahana i ka maʻamau ASTM A335

    11

    hooluolu ea

    Moena hoʻomaha ʻanuʻu

    12

    ʻili ʻili

    Ke ʻeli ʻana i ka lōʻihi i ʻōlelo ʻia

    * Ka mana lōʻihi paipu kila

    13

    Ka pololei (inā pono)

    Kāohi i ka palahalaha.

    Ma hope o ka hoʻopololei ʻana, pono ka pololei e like me ASTM A335

    14

    Nānā a ʻae ʻia

    ʻO ke ʻano a me ka nānā ʻana

    * Pono nā ʻae ʻana o ke kila kila me ka ASTM A999

    Nānā: ʻO ke anawaena o waho ke ahonui: ±0.75%D

    * Pono e hoʻokō ʻia ka nānā ʻana i nā hiʻohiʻona e like me ka maʻamau ASTM A999 e pale i ka ʻili maikaʻi ʻole.

    15

    ʻike hemahema

    * Pono e nānā ʻia ke kino holoʻokoʻa o ka paipu kila no nā hemahema lōʻihi e like me ISO9303/E213

    Ka ho'āʻo ultrasonic:
    1) Palapala noi: ISO9303/ASTM E213
    2) Hōʻike maʻamau: Nānā hemahema lōʻihi.
    3) Ka pae ʻae: L2/C (waho a me loko)
    'Ōlelo Aʻo: Pono e loaʻa i ka luna nānā ʻike kīnā ka palapala hōʻoia o ke keʻena hoʻāʻo ʻole luku ʻole o ka Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society.

    16

    Ho'āʻo waiwai mīkini

    (1) Ho'āʻo Tensile (longitudinal) a me ka ho'āʻo palahalaha

    ʻO ka pinepine nānā
    Ua wehewehe ʻia ʻo "Lot" e like me ASTM A335

    5% / pūʻulu, ma ka liʻiliʻi 2 paipu

    Min

    Max

    P9

    Ka ikaika hua (Mpa)

    205

     

    ikaika uʻi (MPa)

    415

     

    ʻO ka lōʻihi

    Wahi a ASTM A335 maʻamau

    Hoʻokolohua hoʻopololei

    Wahi a ASTM A999 maʻamau

    (2) Hoao paakiki

    Ka pinepine ho'āʻo: like me ka ho'āʻo tensile

    1 ʻāpana / ʻāpana

    HV&HRC

    ≤250HV10&≤25 HRC HV10≤250&HRC≤25

    'Ōlelo Aʻo: Vickers paakiki ho'āʻo maʻamau: ISO6507 a ASTM E92;

    ʻO ke kūlana hoʻāʻo paʻakikī ʻo Rockwell: ISO6508 a i ʻole ASTM E18

    17

    NDT

    E ho'āʻo ʻia kēlā me kēia paipu kila e like me nā koi o nā ʻano hoʻokolohua E213, E309 a i ʻole E570.

    18

    hoʻāʻo paʻa wai

    ʻO ka hoʻāʻo hydrostatic e like me ka ASTM A999, ka hoʻāʻo ʻana
    Ua helu ʻia e like me ke ʻano o ka ASTM A999,
    Ka lōʻihi o ke kaomi wai: ʻaʻohe leaka a i ʻole deformation i loko o 5 kekona

    19

    bevel

    ʻO ka beveling kūpono o nā welau ʻelua o ka paipu kila e like me ASTM B16.25fig.3(a)
    *Kulike me ka huina bevel: 30º-35°
    * Ka ʻaoʻao poʻo: 1.6mm (±0.8mm)

    20

    Ana o ke kaumaha a me ka loa

    *Ka hoʻomanawanui kaumaha hoʻokahi: -6%~ +4%.
    *Ka lōʻihi o ka paipu i hoʻopau ʻia: 6-9 mika

    21

    Kūlana paipu

    E hōʻailona ʻia ka ʻili o waho o ka paipu kila e like me ka maʻamau ASTM A335 a me nā koi o ka mea kūʻai aku.Penei ka hoailona ana.

    “Loihi Kaumaha TPCO ASTM A335 Makahiki-Mahina Ana P9 S LT**C ***MPa/NDE Heat Number Lot Number Tube Number

    22

    pena

    Ua pena ʻia ka ʻili o waho o ka paipu e like me ke kūlana o ka hale hana

    23

    pāpale hope paipu

    ** Pono e loaʻa nā pāpale plastik ma nā kihi ʻelua o kēlā me kēia paipu

    24

    papa inoa mea

    *Pono e hāʻawi ʻia ka puke waiwai e like me EN10204 3.1."Pono e hōʻike ʻia ka PO mea kūʻai aku ma ka puke waiwai.

    图3 P9(1)      ASTM A335 P9

    P9 1

    P9 2

    P9 图3

    P9(4)

    ASTM A335 P11 he paipu wela kiʻekiʻe o ka maʻamau ʻAmelika. ʻO ka paipu Alloy kahi ʻano o ka paipu kila maʻemaʻe, ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o kāna hana ma mua o ka pahu kila maʻemaʻe, no ka mea, ʻoi aku ka nui o C i kēia ʻano o ka paipu kila, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka hana ma mua o ka paipu kila seamless maʻamau, no laila ua hoʻohana nui ʻia ka paipu alloy. i ka aila, aerospace, kemika, ka mana uila, ka paila, ka pūʻali koa a me nā ʻoihana ʻē aʻe.

    Nānā nui

    Kūlana:ASTM A335 Alloy a ʻAʻole: Alloy
    Pūʻulu Papa: P11 Noi: Paipu Boiler
    Mānoanoa: 1 – 100 Mm Ili lapaau: E like me ka Customer koi
    Ka Anawaena o waho (Ka puni): 10 – 1000 Mm ʻenehana: Huki ʻia ʻo Wela/ Huki Anu
    Ka lōʻihi: ka lōʻihi paʻa a i ʻole ka lōʻihi like ʻole Hoʻomaʻamaʻa wela: Annealing / Normalizing / Tempering
    ʻAno ʻāpana: Poe Pipe Pecial: Paipu Pā mānoanoa
    Kahi i kumu: Kina Hoʻohana: High Pressure Steam Pipe, Boiler and Heat Exchanger
    Palapala hōʻoia: ISO9001:2008 Hoʻāʻo: ET/UT

     

    Mea Kimia

    ʻO ka hana kemika o nā paipu kila maʻemaʻe no ka haki ʻana o ka ʻaila

    ASTM A335M

    C

    SI

    Mn

    P

    S

    Cr

    Mo

    P11

    0.05-0.15

    0.5-1.00

    0.30-0.61

    0.025

    0.025

    1.00-1.50

    0.44-0.65

     

    Waiwai Mechanical

    Waiwai

    ʻIkepili

    Ka ikaika uʻi, min, (MPa) 415 Mpa
    Ka ikaika hua, min, (MPa) 205Mpa

    Hoʻomaʻamaʻa Wela

     

    Papa

    ʻAno Hana Wela Hoʻomaʻamaʻa maʻamau ʻo F [C] Subcritical Annealing A i ʻole Tempering
    P5, P9, P11, a me P22    
    A335 P11 Piha A i ʻole Isothermal Anneal    
      Hoʻomaʻamaʻa a me ka huhū ***** 1250[650]

    Hoʻomanawanui

    No ka paipu i kauoha ʻia i loko o ke anawaena, ʻaʻole e ʻokoʻa ke anawaena o loko ma mua o ±1 % mai ka anawaena o loko i ʻōlelo ʻia.

    ʻAe ʻia nā ʻokoʻa ma waho o ke anawaena

    NPS mea koho

    Hoʻomanawanui maikaʻi

    hoʻomanawanui ʻino

    In

    Mm

    In

    Mm

    1⁄8 a hiki i 11⁄2, Incl

    1⁄64 (0.015)

    0.4

    1⁄64(0.015)

    0.4

    Ma luna o 11⁄2 i 4, Incl.

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 4 a 8, Incl

    1⁄16(0.062)

    1.59

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 8 a hiki i ka 12, Incl.

    3⁄32(0.093)

    2.38

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 12

    ±1 % o ka mea i hoakakaia
    Mawaho
    Anawaena

    QQ图片20191018152313(1)   P11伟浩(1)

    ASTM A335 P22he paipu kila hoʻoheheʻe ʻole ʻia no ka hoʻohana ferritic wela kiʻekiʻe.ʻO ka paipu Alloy kahi ʻano o ka paipu kila maʻemaʻe, ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o kāna hana ma mua o ka pahu kila maʻemaʻe, no ka mea, ʻoi aku ka nui o C i kēia ʻano o ka paipu kila, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka hana ma mua o ka paipu kila seamless maʻamau, no laila ua hoʻohana nui ʻia ka paipu alloy. i ka aila, aerospace, kemika, ka mana uila, ka paila, ka pūʻali koa a me nā ʻoihana ʻē aʻe.

    Nānā nui

    Kūlana:ASTM A335 Alloy a ʻAʻole: Alloy
    Pūʻulu Papa: P22 Noi: Paipu Boiler
    Mānoanoa: 1 – 100 Mm Ili lapaau: E like me ka Customer koi
    Ka Anawaena o waho (Ka puni): 10 – 1000 Mm ʻenehana: Huki ʻia ʻo Wela/ Huki Anu
    Ka lōʻihi: ka lōʻihi paʻa a i ʻole ka lōʻihi like ʻole Hoʻomaʻamaʻa wela: Annealing / Normalizing / Tempering
    ʻAno ʻāpana: Poe Pipe Pecial: Paipu Pā mānoanoa
    Kahi i kumu: Kina Hoʻohana: High Pressure Steam Pipe, Boiler and Heat Exchanger
    Palapala hōʻoia: ISO9001:2008 Hoʻāʻo: ET/UT

    Mea Kimia

    ʻO ka hana kemika o nā paipu kila maʻemaʻe no ka haki ʻana o ka ʻaila

    ASTM A335M

    C

    SI

    Mn

    P

    S

    Cr

    Mo

    P22

    0.05-0.15

    0.5

    0.30-0.60

    0.025

    0.025

    1.90-2.60

    0.87-1.13

    Waiwai Mechanical

    Waiwai

    ʻIkepili

    Ka ikaika uʻi, min, (MPa) 415 Mpa
    Ka ikaika hua, min, (MPa) 205Mpa

    Hoʻomaʻamaʻa Wela

     

    Papa

    ʻAno Hana Wela Hoʻomaʻamaʻa maʻamau ʻo F [C] Subcritical Annealing A i ʻole Tempering
    P5, P9, P11, a me P22    
    A335 P22 Piha A i ʻole Isothermal Anneal    
      Hoʻomaʻamaʻa a me ka huhū ***** 1250[650]

    Hoʻomanawanui

    No ka paipu i kauoha ʻia i loko o ke anawaena, ʻaʻole e ʻokoʻa ke anawaena o loko ma mua o ±1 % mai ka anawaena o loko i ʻōlelo ʻia.

    ʻAe ʻia nā ʻokoʻa ma waho o ke anawaena

    NPS mea koho

    Hoʻomanawanui maikaʻi

    hoʻomanawanui ʻino

    In

    Mm

    In

    Mm

    1⁄8 a hiki i 11⁄2, Incl

    1⁄64 (0.015)

    0.4

    1⁄64(0.015)

    0.4

    Ma luna o 11⁄2 i 4, Incl.

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 4 a 8, Incl

    1⁄16(0.062)

    1.59

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 8 a hiki i ka 12, Incl.

    3⁄32(0.093)

    2.38

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 12

    ±1 % o ka mea i hoakakaia
    Mawaho
    Anawaena

    ʻO A335 P22 he 2.25Cr-1Mo Chromium-molybdenum kiʻekiʻe Temperature ferritic steel no nā paila a me nā mea hoʻomehana wela,ASTM A335/A335Mmaʻamau.I ka makahiki 1985, ua hoʻololi ʻia i GB5310 a kapa ʻia ʻo 12Cr2MoG.Loaʻa i nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe nā māka kila like, e like me ka Federal Republic of Germany 10CrMo910 a me Iapana STBA24.I loko o ka cr-1Mo steel series, ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o kona ikaika wela, ma lalo o ka mahana like (ka wela580) ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o kona ikaika haʻihaʻi a me ke koʻikoʻi i ʻae ʻia ma mua o ke kila 9CR-1Mo, a he hana maikaʻi kāna hana a me ka hana kuʻi ʻana, ka plasticity lōʻihi maikaʻi.No laila, ua hoʻohana nui ʻia i loko o ka ʻoihana hana koʻikoʻi, e like me ka mana wela, ka mana nuklea a me kekahi mau mea hydrogen i nā paipu hoʻomehana like ʻole a me nā kīʻaha kiʻekiʻe.

    ʻAe ʻia ka mahana: A335P22 (SA-213T22) i hoʻohana nui ʻia ma 300,600MW a me nā mea nui ʻē aʻe o ka mana nui o ka mea kanu boiler tube pā wela.580ka wela wela a me ka wela o ka paia paipu & LT;540paipu mahu paia a me ke poʻo, ua hoʻohana nui ʻia kēia ʻano kila ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, Iapana a me ʻEulopa, he mōʻaukala lōʻihi o ka hana ʻana i nā mea kanu mana, he hana paʻa, hana maikaʻi ka hana o ke kila makua.

    12Cr1MoV kila no ka chromium-molybdenum vanadium kila vanadium kila, hoʻohana nui ʻia no ka paipu kila 12Cr1MoV/GB5310.Hoʻohana nui ʻia, ʻo ia ka mahana ma 480~580wahi wela kiʻekiʻe me kekahi o nā mea nui loa.12Cr1MoVG kila paipu lawelawe wela: ua hoʻohana nui ia no ke kila nui o ka superheater paipu, poʻo a me ka mahu paipu o kiʻekiʻe puʻupuʻu boiler nona ka paipu pā wela emi ma mua o 580..

    Kaʻina hana: ho'āʻo paʻakikī:

    1. 'Owili wela (extruded seamless paipu kila): poepoe paipu billet → wela → perforation → ekolu-roll kea olokaa, hoomau olokaa 'ole extrusion → paipu wehe 'ana → nui (ai 'ole e ho'ēmi) → hoʻoluʻu → hoʻopololei → wai kaomi ho'āʻo (aiʻole defect detection). ) → māka → waiho

    2. Kiʻi anu (ʻolokaʻa) paipu kila maʻemaʻe: puʻupuʻu pōʻai billet → hoʻomehana → perforation → poʻomanaʻo → annealing → pickling → ʻaila ʻaila (kaupaʻa keleawe) → kiʻi anuanu (cold rolling) → paipu blank → mālama wela → hoʻopololei → wai ho'āʻo kaomi (ʻike hewa) → māka → waiho

    Hoʻopili:

    Hoʻopaʻa haʻahaʻa/puʻi puʻupuʻu/puʻi pahu/pale lāʻau ma nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua o nā paipu a mālama pono ʻia no ka lawe ʻana i ke kai kūpono a i ʻole ke noi ʻia.

    QQ图片20200623142628(1)  P22

    P11伟浩(1)  GD0BL8W8(GE3U5V7O[5_HQY(1)

    Nānā nui

    P92 maʻamau kiʻekiʻe wela wela paipu seamless alloy paipu.

     

    Kūlana:ASTM A335 Alloy a ʻAʻole: Alloy
    Pūʻulu Papa: P92 Noi: Paipu Boiler
    Mānoanoa: 1 – 100 Mm Ili lapaau: E like me ka Customer koi
    Ka Anawaena o waho (Ka puni): 10 – 1000 Mm ʻenehana: Huki ʻia ʻo Wela/ Huki Anu
    Ka lōʻihi: ka lōʻihi paʻa a i ʻole ka lōʻihi like ʻole Hoʻomaʻamaʻa wela: Annealing / Normalizing / Tempering
    ʻAno ʻāpana: Poe Pipe Pecial: Paipu Pā mānoanoa
    Kahi i kumu: Kina Hoʻohana: High Pressure Steam Pipe, Boiler and Heat Exchanger
    Palapala hōʻoia: ISO9001:2008 Hoʻāʻo: ET/UT

     

    Mea Kimia

    ʻO ka hana kemika o nā paipu kila maʻemaʻe no ka haki ʻana o ka ʻaila

    ASTM A335M

    C

    SI

    Mn

    P

    S

    Cr

    Mo

    P92

    0.07-0.13

    0.5

    0.30-0.60

    0.02

    0.01

    8.50-9.5

    0.30-0.60

     

    Waiwai Mechanical

    Waiwai

    ʻIkepili

    Ka ikaika uʻi, min, (MPa) 620 Mpa
    Ka ikaika hua, min, (MPa) 440Mpa

    Hoʻomaʻamaʻa Wela

     

    Papa

    ʻAno Hana Wela Hoʻomaʻamaʻa maʻamau ʻo F [C] Subcritical Annealing A i ʻole Tempering
    P5, P9, P11, a me P22    
    A335 P92 Piha A i ʻole Isothermal Anneal    
      Hoʻomaʻamaʻa a me ka huhū ***** 1250[675]

    Hoʻomanawanui

    No ka paipu i kauoha ʻia i loko o ke anawaena, ʻaʻole e ʻokoʻa ke anawaena o loko ma mua o ±1 % mai ka anawaena o loko i ʻōlelo ʻia.

    ʻAe ʻia nā ʻokoʻa ma waho o ke anawaena

    NPS mea koho

    Hoʻomanawanui maikaʻi

    hoʻomanawanui ʻino

    In

    Mm

    In

    Mm

    1⁄8 a hiki i 11⁄2, Incl

    1⁄64 (0.015)

    0.4

    1⁄64(0.015)

    0.4

    Ma luna o 11⁄2 i 4, Incl.

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 4 a 8, Incl

    1⁄16(0.062)

    1.59

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 8 a hiki i ka 12, Incl.

    3⁄32(0.093)

    2.38

    1⁄32(0.031)

    0.79

    Ma luna o 12

    ±1 % o ka mea i hoakakaia
    Mawaho
    Anawaena

    E kākau i kāu leka ma aneʻi a hoʻouna mai iā mākou