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ʻO ke kila kalapona ʻole a me nā paipu mechanical alloy

ʻO ka wehewehe pōkole:

ʻO nā paipu kila maʻemaʻe, ka paipu kila Carbon a me nā paipu mechanical alloy, ka nui no ka mechanical inASTM A519-2006ʻO ka maʻamau, hui pū ʻia nā paipu mechanical alloy

1018,1026,8620,4130,4140 etc.


  • Uku:30% waiho, 70% L/C a i ʻole B/L kope a i ʻole 100% L/C ma ka ʻike
  • Ka nui o ke kauoha:1 PC
  • Hiki ke hoolako:20000 Tons Inventory of Steel Pipe
  • Ka manawa o waena o ka hoʻomaka a i ka wā pau:7-14 mau lā inā ma ka waihona, 30-45 mau lā e hana ai
  • Hoʻopili:Nalo ʻeleʻele, bevel a me ka pāpale no kēlā me kēia paipu;Pono ka OD ma lalo o 219mm e hoʻopaʻa i ka pūʻolo, a ʻaʻole i ʻoi aku ka nui o kēlā me kēia puʻupuʻu i 2 tons.
  • Huahana Huahana

    Huahana Huahana

    Nānā nui

    Kūlana:ASTM A519-2006 Alloy a ʻAʻole: Alloy a Carbon
    Pūʻulu Papa: 1018,1026,8620,4130,4140 Noi: Paipu mīkini
    Mānoanoa: 1 - 100 mm Lapaʻau Surface: E like me ke koi o ka mea kūʻai aku
    Ka Anawaena o waho (Ka puni): 10 - 1000 mm ʻAno ʻenehana: ʻōwili wela a i ʻole ka ʻōwili anu
    Ka lōʻihi: Paʻa ka lōʻihi a i ʻole ka lōʻihi like ʻole Hoʻomaʻamaʻa wela: Annealing/Normalizing/Stress Relieving
    ʻAno ʻāpana: Poe Pipe Kūikawā: Paipu Pā mānoanoa
    Kahi i kumu: Kina Hoʻohana: mechanical
    Palapala hōʻoia: ISO9001:2008 Hoʻāʻo: ECT/UT

    Palapala noi

    Hoʻohana nui ʻia ia no ka mīkini a hoʻohana ʻia e hana i nā pahu kinoea.include carbon a me ke kila kila seamless mechanical tubing, a uhi ʻia ʻelua seamless hot-finished mechanical tubing a me seamless anu-finished mechanical tubing i nā nui a hiki i ka 12 3⁄4 in. (323.8 mm) waho anawaena no na paipu poepoe me ka manoanoa o ka paia e like me ka makemake.

    Papa Nui

    1018,1026,8620,4130,4140

    Mea Kimia

    PAPA 1 Na Koina Kemika o na kila Haahaa

    Papa Nā palena o ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā mea hana kemika, %
    Koho KalaponaA ManganeseB ʻO Phosphorus,B Sulfur,B
          max max
    MT X 1015 0.10–0.20 0.60–0.90 0.04 0.05
    MT 1010 0.05–0.15 0.30–0.60 0.04 0.05
    MT 1015 0.10–0.20 0.30–0.60 0.04 0.05
    MT 1020 0.15–0.25 0.30–0.60 0.04 0.05
    MT X 1020 0.15–0.25 0.70–1.00 0.04 0.05


    PAPA 2 Na Koina Kemika o na hao kalapona e ae
    BPili nā palena i ka nānā ʻana i ka wela;koe wale nō e like me ka mea i koi ʻia e 6.1, e pili ana nā loiloi huahana i nā ʻae ʻia i hāʻawi ʻia ma ka Papa 5.

    Papa   Nā palena o ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā mea hana kemika, %A  
    Koho        
    Kalapona Manganese phosphorus, Sulfur,
          max max
    1008 0.10 ka nui 0.30–0.50 0.04 0.05
    1010 0.08–0.13 0.30–0.60 0.04 0.05
    1012 0.10–0.15 0.30–0.60 0.04 0.05
    1015 0.13–0.18 0.30–0.60 0.04 0.05
    1016 0.13–0.18 0.60–0.90 0.04 0.05
    1017 0.15–0.20 0.30–0.60 0.04 0.05
    1018 0.15–0.20 0.60–0.90 0.04 0.05
    1019 0.15–0.20 0.70–1.00 0.04 0.05
    1020 0.18–0.23 0.30–0.60 0.04 0.05
    1021 0.18–0.23 0.60–0.90 0.04 0.05
    1022 0.18–0.23 0.70–1.00 0.04 0.05
    1025 0.22–0.28 0.30–0.60 0.04 0.05
    1026 0.22–0.28 0.60–0.90 0.04 0.05
    1030 0.28–0.34 0.60–0.90 0.04 0.05
    1035 0.32–0.38 0.60–0.90 0.04 0.05
    1040 0.37–0.44 0.60–0.90 0.04 0.05
    1045 0.43–0.50 0.60–0.90 0.04 0.05
    1050 0.48–0.55 0.60–0.90 0.04 0.05
    1518 0.15–0.21 1.10–1.40 0.04 0.05
    1524 0.19–0.25 1.35–1.65 0.04 0.05
    1541 0.36–0.44 1.35–1.65 0.04 0.05

    A Ua pili nā pae a me nā palena i hāʻawi ʻia ma kēia pākaukau i ka nānā ʻana i ka wela;koe wale no e like me ka mea i koiia e6.1, e pili ana nā loiloi huahana i nā ho'omanawanui hou i hā'awi 'ia ma ka Papa Helu 5.

    PAPA 3 Na Koina Kemika no na kila Alloy
    HOOLAHA 1—Pili nā pae a me nā palena o kēia pākaukau i ke kila ʻaʻole i ʻoi aku ma mua o 200 in.2 (1290 cm2) ma ka ʻāpana ʻāpana.
    HOOLAHA 2—Nā mea liʻiliʻi o kekahi mau mea i loaʻa i loko o nā kila kila ʻaʻole i kuhikuhi ʻia a koi ʻia.Manaʻo ʻia kēia mau mea he mea ʻole
    a hiki ke loaʻa i kēia mau helu kiʻekiʻe: keleawe, 0.35 %;nikela, 0.25 %;chromium, 0.20 %;molybdenum, 0.10 %.
    HOOLAHA 3—E pili ana nā pae a me nā palena i hāʻawi ʻia ma kēia pākaukau i ka nānā ʻana i ka wela;koe wale nō e like me ka mea i koi ʻia e 6.1, pili nā loiloi huahana i nā mea pili
    nā hoʻomanawanui hou aʻe i hāʻawi ʻia ma ka papa helu 5.

     

    PapaA,B       Nā palena o ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā mea hana kemika, %        
    Hoʻolālā-                
    Kalapona Manganese Phospho- Sulfur,C,D Silika Nikela Chromium Molybde-
    tion              
        rus,Cmax max       helu
                   
    1330 0.28–0.33 1.60–1.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... ...
    1335 0.33–0.38 1.60–1.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... ...
    1340 0.38–0.43 1.60–1.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... ...
    1345 0.43–0.48 1.60–1.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... ...
    3140 0.38–0.43 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 1.10–1.40 0.55–0.75 ...
    E3310 0.08–0.13 0.45–0.60 0.025 0.025 0.15–0.35 3.25–3.75 1.40–1.75 ...
    4012 0.09–0.14 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.15–0.25
    4023 0.20–0.25 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.20–0.30
    4024 0.20–0.25 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.035−0.050 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.20–0.30
    4027 0.25–0.30 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.20–0.30
    4028 0.25–0.30 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.035−0.050 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.20–0.30
    4037 0.35–0.40 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.20–0.30
    4042 0.40–0.45 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.20–0.30
    4047 0.45–0.50 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.20–0.30
    4063 0.60–0.67 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.20–0.30
    4118 0.18–0.23 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.40–0.60 0.08–0.15
    4130 0.28–0.33 0.40–0.60 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25
    4135 0.32–0.39 0.65–0.95 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25
    4137 0.35–0.40 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25
    4140 0.38–0.43 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25
    4142 0.40–0.45 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25
    4145 0.43–0.48 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25
    4147 0.45–0.50 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25
    4150 0.48–0.53 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.10 0.15–0.25
    4320 0.17–0.22 0.45–0.65 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 1.65–2.00 0.40–0.60 0.20–0.30
    4337 0.35–0.40 0.60–0.80 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 1.65–2.00 0.70–0.90 0.20–0.30
    E4337 0.35–0.40 0.65–0.85 0.025 0.025 0.15–0.35 1.65–2.00 0.70–0.90 0.20–0.30
    4340 0.38–0.43 0.60–0.80 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 1.65–2.00 0.70–0.90 0.20–0.30
    E4340 0.38–0.43 0.65–0.85 0.025 0.025 0.15–0.35 1.65–2.00 0.70–0.90 0.20–0.30
    4422 0.20–0.25 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.35–0.45
    4427 0.24–0.29 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.35–0.45
    4520 0.18–0.23 0.45–0.65 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... ... 0.45–0.60
    4615 0.13–0.18 0.45–0.65 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 1.65–2.00 ... 0.20–0.30
    4617 0.15–0.20 0.45–0.65 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 1.65–2.00 ... 0.20–0.30
    4620 0.17–0.22 0.45–0.65 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 1.65–2.00 ... 0.20–0.30
    4621 0.18–0.23 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 1.65–2.00 ... 0.20–0.30
    4718 0.16–0.21 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.90–1.20 0.35–0.55 0.30–0.40
    4720 0.17–0.22 0.50–0.70 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.90–1.20 0.35–0.55 0.15–0.25
    4815 0.13–0.18 0.40–0.60 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 3.25–3.75 ... 0.20–0.30
    4817 0.15–0.20 0.40–0.60 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 3.25–3.75 ... 0.20–0.30
    4820 0.18–0.23 0.50–0.70 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 3.25–3.75 ... 0.20–0.30
    5015 0.12–0.17 0.30–0.50 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.30–0.50 ...
    5046 0.43–0.50 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.20–0.35 ...
    5115 0.13–0.18 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.70–0.90 ...
    5120 0.17–0.22 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.70–0.90 ...
    5130 0.28–0.33 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.10 ...
    5132 0.30–0.35 0.60–0.80 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.75–1.00 ...
    5135 0.33–0.38 0.60–0.80 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.05 ...
    5140 0.38–0.43 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.70–0.90 ...
    5145 0.43–0.48 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.70–0.90 ...
    5147 0.46–0.51 0.70–0.95 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.85–1.15 ...
    5150 0.48–0.53 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.70–0.90 ...
    5155 0.51–0.59 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.70–0.90 ...
    5160 0.56–0.64 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.70–0.90 ...
    52100E 0.93–1.05 0.25–0.45 0.025 0.015 0.15–0.35 0.25 ka nui 1.35–1.60 0.10 ka nui
    E50100 0.98–1.10 0.25–0.45 0.025 0.025 0.15–0.35 ... 0.40–0.60 ...
    E51100 0.98–1.10 0.25–0.45 0.025 0.025 0.15–0.35 ... 0.90–1.15 ...
    E52100 0.98–1.10 0.25–0.45 0.025 0.025 0.15–0.35 ... 1.30–1.60 ...
                    Vanadium
                     
    6118 0.16–0.21 0.50–0.70 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.50–0.70 0.10–0.15
    6120 0.17–0.22 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.70–0.90 0.10 min
    6150 0.48–0.53 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.80–1.10 0.15 min
                     
                Aluminum   Molybdenum
                     
    E7140 0.38–0.43 0.50–0.70 0.025 0.025 0.15–0.40 0.95–1.30 1.40–1.80 0.30–0.40
                     
                Nikela    
                     
    8115 0.13–0.18 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.20–0.40 0.30–0.50 0.08–0.15
    8615 0.13–0.18 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8617 0.15–0.20 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8620 0.18–0.23 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8622 0.20–0.25 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8625 0.23–0.28 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8627 0.25–0.30 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8630 0.28–0.33 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8637 0.35–0.40 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8640 0.38–0.43 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8642 0.40–0.45 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8645 0.43–0.48 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8650 0.48–0.53 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8655 0.51–0.59 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8660 0.55–0.65 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    8720 0.18–0.23 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.20–0.30
    8735 0.33–0.38 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.20–0.30
    8740 0.38–0.43 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.20–0.30
    8742 0.40–0.45 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.20–0.30
    8822 0.20–0.25 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.30–0.40
    9255 0.51–0.59 0.60–0.80 0.04 0.04 1.80–2.20 ... 0.60–0.80 ...
    9260 0.56–0.64 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 1.80–2.20 ... ... ...
    9262 0.55–0.65 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 1.80–2.20 ... 0.25–0.40 ...
    E9310 0.08–0.13 0.45–0.65 0.025 0.025 0.15–0.35 3.00–3.50 1.00–1.40 0.08–0.15
    9840 0.38–0.42 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.85–1.15 0.70–0.90 0.20–0.30
    9850 0.48–0.53 0.70–0.90 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.85–1.15 0.70–0.90 0.20–0.30
    50B40 0.38–0.42 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.40–0.60 ...
    50B44 0.43–0.48 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.40–0.60 ...
    50B46 0.43–0.50 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.20–0.35 ...
    50B50 0.48–0.53 0.74–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.40–0.60 ...
    50B60 0.55–0.65 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.40–0.60 ...
    51B60 0.56–0.64 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 ... 0.70–0.90 ...
    81B45 0.43–0.48 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.20–0.40 0.35–0.55 0.08–0.15
    86B45 0.43–0.48 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.40–0.70 0.40–0.60 0.15–0.25
    94B15 0.13–0.18 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.30–0.60 0.30–0.50 0.08–0.15
    94B17 0.15–0.20 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.30–0.60 0.30–0.50 0.08–0.15
    94B30 0.28–0.33 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.30–0.60 0.30–0.50 0.08–0.15
    94B40 0.38–0.43 0.75–1.00 0.04 0.04 0.15–0.35 0.30–0.60 0.30–0.50 0.08–0.15
                     

    B Hiki ke manaʻo ʻia he 0.0005 % ka mana boron haʻahaʻa loa i nā māka i hōʻike ʻia ma kēia pākaukau me ka leka B, e like me 50B40. AHana ʻia nā māka i hōʻike ʻia ma kēia pākaukau me ka hua prefix E ma ke kaʻina kumu-electric-furnace.Hana ʻia nā mea ʻē aʻe a pau e ke kaʻina kumu-open-hearth akā hiki ke hana ʻia e ke kaʻina kumu-electric-furnace me nā hoʻololi i ka phosphorus a me ka sulfur.

     

    CʻO nā palena o ka phosphorus sulfur no kēlā me kēia kaʻina hana penei:

    Uhi uila kumu 0.025 kiʻekiʻe % Puku uila ʻakika 0.050 kiʻekiʻe %

    Puaahi hāmama kumu 0.040 kiʻekiʻe % Pu kapuahi hāmama 0.050 kiʻekiʻe %

    D ʻO ka liʻiliʻi a me ka nui o ka sulfur maʻiʻo e hōʻike ana i nā kila resulfurized.

    EHiki i ka mea kūʻai ke kuhikuhi i kēia mau huina nui loa: keleawe, 0.30 %;alumini, 0.050 %;a me ka oxygen, 0.0015 %.

     

    Waiwai Mechanical

    ʻO nā ʻano Tensile maʻamau, ka paʻakikī a me ke ʻano wela no kekahi o nā māka maʻamau o nā kalapona a me nā kila Alloy.

     

    CW—Cold Worked SR—Stress Relieved A—Annealed N—NormalizedA Eia nā wehewehe hōʻailona no nā kūlana like ʻole: HR—Hot Rolle

    Papa kūlana- hope loa Hāʻawi ʻO ka lōʻihi Rockwell,
    Hoʻolālā- tionA ikaika, ikaika, i 2 in. a i ole ʻoʻoleʻa
    lāhui           50 mm, % B ʻAina
      ksi MPa ksi MPa
         
                 
    1020 HR 50 345 32 221 25 55
    CW 70 483 60 414 5 75
    SR 65 448 50 345 10 72
    A 48 331 28 193 30 50
    N 55 379 34 234 22 60
    1025 HR 55 379 35 241 25 60
    CW 75 517 65 448 5 80
    SR 70 483 55 379 8 75
    A 53 365 30 207 25 57
    N 55 379 36 248 22 60
    1035 HR 65 448 40 276 20 72
    CW 85 586 75 517 5 88
    SR 75 517 65 448 8 80
    A 60 414 33 228 25 67
    N 65 448 40 276 20 72
    1045 HR 75 517 45 310 15 80
    CW 90 621 80 552 5 90
    SR 80 552 70 483 8 85
    A 65 448 35 241 20 72
    N 75 517 48 331 15 80
    1050 HR 80 552 50 345 10 85
    SR 82 565 70 483 6 86
    A 68 469 38 262 18 74
    N 78 538 50 345 12 82
    1118 HR 50 345 35 241 25 55
    CW 75 517 60 414 5 80
    SR 70 483 55 379 8 75
    A 50 345 30 207 25 55
    N 55 379 35 241 20 60
    1137 HR 70 483 40 276 20 75
    CW 80 552 65 448 5 85
    SR 75 517 60 414 8 80
    A 65 448 35 241 22 72
    N 70 483 43 296 15 75
    4130 HR 90 621 70 483 20 89
    SR 105 724 85 586 10 95
    A 75 517 55 379 30 81
    N 90 621 60 414 20 89
    4140 HR 120 855 90 621 15 100
    SR 120 855 100 689 10 100
    A 80 552 60 414 25 85
    N 120 855 90 621 20 100

    d

    Hoʻomanawanui

    ʻO nā ʻae ʻana o ka anawaena o waho no nā paipu i hoʻopau ʻia me ka welaA,B,C

     

    Ma waho o ka Anawaena Nui, ʻO ka hoʻomanawanui ʻana o waho, i loko (mm)
      i loko (mm)

    Pau

    Ma lalo

             
    A hiki i 2.999 (76.17)

    0.020 (0.51)

    0.020 (0.51)

     
    3.000–4.499 (76.20–114.27)

    0.025 (0.64)

    0.025 (0.64)

     
    4.500–5.999 (114.30–152.37)

    0.031 (0.79)

    0.031 (0.79)

     
    6.000–7.499 (152.40–190.47)

    0.037 (0.94)

    0.037 (0.94)

     
    7.500–8.999 (190.50–228.57)

    0.045 (1.14)

    0.045 (1.14)

     
    9.000–10.750 (228.60–273.05)

    0.050 (1.27)

    0.050 (1.27)

     
             

     

    ʻAʻole pili nā ʻae ʻana i ke anawaena i nā kūlana maʻamau a i ʻole ke kinai ʻia a i ʻole nā ​​​​mea hoʻomāmā.

    B ʻO ka laulā maʻamau o nā paipu wela wela he 11⁄2 iniha (38.1 mm) i 103⁄4 ​​in. (273.0 mm) waho anawaena me ka paia mānoanoa ma ka liʻiliʻi loa 3 % a oi o waho anawaena, aka, aole emi malalo o 0.095 in. (2.41 mm).

    C Loaʻa nā nui nui;e kūkākūkā i ka mea hana no ka nui a me ka hoʻomanawanui.

     

    ʻO ka ʻae ʻana i ka mānoanoa o ka pā no ka puni wela

    Paipu

     

     

    Mānoanoa Pā

    ʻO ka hoʻomanawanui ʻana o ka pā,Apakeneka Over

    Kaulana e like me ka pākēneka

    a malalo o Nominal

    o waho

    Mawaho

    Mawaho

    Mawaho

    Anawaena

    Anawaena

    Anawaena

    Anawaena

    2.999 in.

    3.000 in.

    6.000 in.

    (76.19 mm)

    (76.20 mm)

    (152.40 mm)

    a ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi

    i 5.999 in.

    i ka 10.750 in.

    (152.37 mm)

    (273.05 mm)

    Ma lalo o 15

    12.5

    10.0

    10.0

    15 a keu aku

    10.0

    7.5

    10.0

    ʻAʻole pili ka mānoanoa o ka pā i nā paia 0.199 iniha (5.05 mm) a emi mai;e kūkākūkā i ka mea hana no ka pale ʻana i ka pā ma ia nui o ka paipu.
    ʻoi aku ka nui o ka nui, a laila pono e kuhikuhi ʻia nā paipu anuanu i ke anawaena o loko a me ka mānoanoa o ka paia a i ʻole ke anawaena o waho a me ke anawaena o loko.
    ʻAʻole e ʻoi aku ke ʻano o ke anawaena o waho a me ka mānoanoa o ka paia i ka hoʻomanawanui ma ka Papa.Hoʻopili ʻia ka papa ʻaina i nā hoʻomanawanui e like me ke anawaena o waho a me ka mānoanoa o ka paia a pili i ka nui i kuhikuhi ʻia.
    ʻAʻole e ʻoi aku ke ʻano o ke anawaena o waho ma mua o nā ʻae ʻana ma ka Papa.Hana ʻia kēia huahana mai kahi paipu anuanu.
    Nā lōʻihi—Hoʻolako pinepine ʻia nā paipu mīkini i ka lōʻihi wili, 5 ft (1.5 m) a ʻoi aku.Hāʻawi ʻia nā lōʻihi ʻoki pono i ka wā i kuhikuhi ʻia e ka mea kūʻai.Hōʻike ʻia nā hoʻomanawanui lōʻihi ma ka Papa.
    Pololei—Aole e oi aku ka hoomanawanui o ka pololei no na paipu poepoe i ka huina i hoikeia ma ka Papa.

     

    Koi hoao

    1. Hoao paakiki
    Ke koi ʻia nā palena paʻakikī, e kūkākūkā ka mea hana.Hoʻopaʻa ʻia nā paʻakikī maʻamau ma ka Papa .Ke kuhikuhi ʻia, e hana ʻia ka hoʻāʻo paʻakikī ma 1% o nā paipu.

    2. Nā ho'āʻo hoʻopaʻapaʻa
    Ke koi ʻia nā waiwai tensile, e kūkākūkā ka mea hana.Hōʻike ʻia nā waiwai tensile maʻamau no kekahi o nā māka maʻamau a me nā kūlana wela ma ka papa.

    3. Nondestructive ho'āʻo
    Loaʻa nā ʻano hoʻokolohua nondestructive ultrasonic a i ʻole electromagnetic.ʻO ka hoʻāʻo e hoʻohana ʻia a me nā palena nānā e hoʻokumu ʻia e ka mea hana a me ka mea kūʻai aku ʻaelike.

    4.Flaring Test
    Inā loaʻa nā koi kūikawā no ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe kila, e hoʻokumu ʻia nā ʻano o ka hoʻāʻo a me nā palena o ka ʻae ʻia e ka mea hana a me ka mea kūʻai aku.

    Huahana Huahana


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